what is Option Trading and it's history

Option Trading history

The history of option trading in India dates back several decades and has evolved significantly over time. Here is an overview of the key milestones and developments in the history of option trading in India:

Early Years and Limited Access (1970s-1990s):

  • Option trading in India began in the 1970s with the introduction of index options on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). However, the market for options remained relatively limited in the early years.
  • Options trading was initially seen as complex and was not widely accessible to retail investors due to factors such as lack of awareness, regulatory constraints, and technological limitations.

Introduction of Equity Options (2000s):

  • The National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) played a significant role in popularizing options trading in the country. In 2001, NSE introduced index options, allowing investors to trade options based on the Nifty index.
  • In 2002, NSE introduced stock options, which allowed investors to trade options on individual stocks. This move expanded the scope of options trading to a broader range of assets.

Rapid Growth and Regulatory Changes (2000s-2010s):

  • The 2000s and 2010s witnessed a substantial increase in the popularity and trading volume of options in India. As awareness grew and trading platforms became more accessible, options trading gained traction among retail investors, traders, and institutions.
  • Regulatory bodies like the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) played a vital role in shaping the options market. SEBI introduced regulations and guidelines to ensure transparency, fair practices, and investor protection.
  • The introduction of Single Stock Futures (SSF) in 2001 further expanded the derivatives market, offering more options for traders and investors to hedge their positions.

Introduction of Weekly Options and Other Innovations (2010s-Present):

  • In 2016, NSE introduced weekly options contracts on the Nifty 50 index, allowing traders to take advantage of short-term price movements.
  • As technology advanced, electronic trading platforms made options trading more accessible to a wider audience, including retail investors using online trading accounts.
  • The options market continued to evolve with the introduction of innovations such as options on commodities, allowing traders to speculate on price movements in sectors beyond equities.
  • SEBI and the exchanges have periodically introduced enhancements and modifications to the options market’s structure to improve liquidity, transparency, and risk management.

Increasing Popularity and Education:

  • Over the years, educational initiatives, seminars, and workshops have been conducted to increase awareness and understanding of options trading among investors. Brokerages and financial institutions have also played a role in educating clients about the benefits and risks of options trading.
  • The availability of educational resources online, including tutorials, webinars, and research articles, has contributed to a broader understanding of options trading concepts and strategies.

What is Option trading?

what is Option Trading-theory

Option trading is a specialized and versatile financial instrument that has gained significant popularity within the Indian stock market. It provides investors with unique opportunities to leverage market movements without actually owning the underlying asset. Options are considered derivatives because their value is derived from the value of an underlying asset, such as stocks or indices.

Types of Options:
In the Indian stock market, there are two primary types of options: Call options and Put options.

1. Call Options:
A call option is a contract that grants the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy a predetermined quantity of an underlying asset at a specified price, known as the strike price, on or before the option’s expiration date. Call options are typically used when investors anticipate a rise in the price of the underlying asset. By purchasing a call option, an investor can benefit from potential price appreciation without actually owning the asset.

2. Put Options:
A put option is a contract that provides the holder with the right, but not the obligation, to sell a predetermined quantity of an underlying asset at a specified strike price on or before the option’s expiration date. Put options are often employed when investors expect a decline in the price of the underlying asset. Holding a put option allows an investor to profit from a drop in the asset’s value without actually owning it.

Option trading Key Terminology:

  • Strike Price: The strike price is the pre-decided price at which the underlying asset can be bought (in the case of a call option) or sold (in the case of a put option) upon exercise of the option.
  • Expiration Date: Options contracts have a predefined expiration date, beyond which they become void. In India, options usually have monthly expiration dates. The last Thursday of each month is a common expiration date for index options, while stock options often expire on the last trading day of the respective month.
  • Premium: The premium is the price paid by the option buyer to the option seller (also known as the writer) for obtaining the right conveyed by the option contract. It represents the cost of holding the option and is influenced by factors such as the current market price of the underlying asset, implied volatility, time remaining until expiration, and prevailing interest rates.
  • In-the-Money (ITM), At-the-Money (ATM), and Out-of-the-Money (OTM): These terms categorize the relationship between the option’s strike price and the current market price of the underlying asset. An option is considered in-the-money if exercising it would yield a profit, at-the-money if the strike price is very close to the market price, and out-of-the-money if exercising it would result in a loss.
  • Leverage: Option trading offers the advantage of leverage, which means that a small investment (the premium) can control a larger position in the underlying asset. However, while leverage amplifies potential gains, it also increases the risk of losses.
  • Hedging and Speculation: Investors use options for various purposes. Hedging involves using options to protect a portfolio against potential losses. On the other hand, speculation involves taking advantage of market movements to generate profits.

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Risk and Reward:

Option trading, while potentially lucrative, involves a level of complexity and risk that traders need to be aware of. The risk in option trading includes the potential loss of the premium paid if the option expires out-of-the-money. Due to the time-sensitive nature of options, their value can erode rapidly as the expiration date approaches.

However, the reward potential is substantial. Traders who correctly anticipate market movements can achieve significant returns on their investment. This potential for high returns, coupled with the ability to limit losses through well-strategized positions, makes option trading an attractive choice for both seasoned investors and those looking to enter the market.

Options Strategies:

Traders often employ various options strategies to achieve specific objectives. Some popular strategies include:

  • Covered Call: Combining stock ownership with a call option to generate income.
  • Protective Put: Purchasing a put option to hedge against potential losses in a stock position.
  • Straddle and Strangle: Strategies that involve buying both call and put options with the same expiration date and strike price (straddle) or different strike prices (strangle), to capitalize on potential significant price movements.

Educational Resources and Caution:

For individuals considering option trading in the Indian stock market, it’s crucial to have a solid understanding of options, their mechanics, and their potential risks. Options trading involves a degree of complexity and requires careful consideration of market conditions, individual risk tolerance, and investment objectives. It’s advisable to educate oneself through books, online resources, seminars, and consultation with financial professionals before engaging in options trading.


Option trading provides a powerful tool for investors to participate in the stock market and capitalize on market movements without actually owning the underlying asset. With its potential for significant gains and its flexibility in strategies, option trading has gained traction in the Indian stock market. However, it’s important to approach options trading with a clear understanding of the mechanics, risks, and potential rewards, and to always exercise caution and prudence in managing your investment portfolio.

A real-life example of an options trading scenario:

Scenario: Covered Call Strategy

Investor Profile:
Raj is a retail investor who owns 100 shares of XYZ Company, which is currently trading at INR 1,000 per share. He believes that the stock’s price will remain relatively stable in the short term but doesn’t expect significant price appreciation.

Raj wants to generate additional income from his existing stock holdings while keeping the potential for capital gains.

Options Strategy: Covered Call
Raj decides to implement a covered call strategy to achieve his objectives. In a covered call strategy, an investor holds a long position in the underlying stock while simultaneously writing (selling) a call option on the same stock.

Steps Taken:

  1. Raj owns 100 shares of XYZ Company, currently priced at INR 1,000 per share.
  2. He decides to sell a call option with a strike price of INR 1,100 that expires in one month. He receives a premium of INR 20 per share for selling the call option.

Possible Outcomes:

  1. Stock Price Remains Below Strike Price (INR 1,100):
  • If, at the option’s expiration, the stock price remains below the strike price (INR 1,100), the call option expires worthless, and Raj keeps the premium of INR 20 per share that he received when selling the option.
  • Raj can then repeat the strategy by selling another call option on his shares in the next month, generating additional income.
  1. Stock Price Exceeds Strike Price (INR 1,100):
  • If the stock price rises above the strike price (INR 1,100) before the option’s expiration, the call option may be exercised by the option holder.
  • Raj would be obligated to sell his shares at the strike price of INR 1,100, regardless of the market price. In this case, he still earns the premium of INR 20 per share, plus the profit from the difference between the stock’s purchase price (INR 1,000) and the strike price (INR 1,100).

Potential Outcomes Analysis:

  • If the stock remains below INR 1,100, Raj benefits from the premium income and maintains ownership of his shares.
  • If the stock price exceeds INR 1,100, Raj might miss out on potential additional gains beyond the strike price, but he still benefits from the premium income and profits from the appreciation up to the strike price.

Risk and Considerations:

  • The primary risk in this strategy is that Raj’s potential gains are limited if the stock price surges significantly above the strike price, as he’s obligated to sell at the strike price.
  • However, Raj has partially mitigated this risk by receiving the premium, which provides a cushion against potential losses.
  • Covered call strategies are generally used when an investor expects mild price movement or limited upside potential.

Raj’s covered call strategy demonstrates how an investor can generate income from their existing stock holdings while managing risk. By combining a long stock position with the sale of a call option, Raj is able to benefit from both the premium income and potential stock price appreciation up to the strike price. This example illustrates the versatility of options strategies and how they can be tailored to an investor’s objectives and market outlook.

Advantages and disadvantages of Option trading

Certainly, option trading comes with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Let’s explore both sides:

Advantages of Option Trading:

  1. Leverage: Options allow traders to control a larger position with a smaller investment (the premium). This leverage can amplify gains if the trade goes in the desired direction.
  2. Limited Risk: When buying options, the maximum loss is limited to the premium paid. This provides a defined risk profile, making it easier to manage and plan for potential losses.
  3. Diverse Strategies: Options offer a wide range of strategies, allowing traders to profit in various market conditions, including bullish, bearish, and neutral markets.
  4. Income Generation: Selling options, such as covered calls, can generate consistent income for traders. Premium received from selling options contributes to overall returns.
  5. Hedging: Investors can use options to hedge their portfolios against adverse market movements, reducing potential losses during market downturns.
  6. Flexibility: Options can be traded on various underlying assets, including stocks, indices, commodities, and currencies, providing diversification opportunities.
  7. Speculation and Hedging: Options can be used for speculative purposes to capture potential price movements or for hedging to protect against potential losses.

Disadvantages of Option Trading:

  1. Time Decay: Options have a limited lifespan, and their value erodes as they approach expiration. This time decay can work against traders, especially those who hold options for extended periods.
  2. Complexity: Option trading can be complex, with various strategies and factors to consider. A lack of understanding can lead to poor decision-making and losses.
  3. Volatility Impact: High volatility can be beneficial for some strategies but detrimental for others. Volatility can lead to unexpected price movements and losses.
  4. Liquidity Concerns: Some options may have lower trading volumes and liquidity, leading to wider bid-ask spreads and difficulty in executing trades at desired prices.
  5. Potential for Losses: While the maximum loss is limited when buying options, it’s still possible to lose the entire premium paid if the trade doesn’t go as expected.
  6. Margin Requirements: Certain strategies, such as naked options selling, require significant margin and can expose traders to substantial risk.
  7. Complex Tax Treatment: Tax implications for options trading can be complex, and traders need to be aware of the tax rules and reporting requirements.
  8. Market Timing: Successfully timing the market is essential for options traders. Incorrect predictions about the direction of price movements can lead to losses.

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